Cargo Trailer Tire Safety Guidelines
Cargo trailers are great tools to have for a myriad of purposes, however, most problems with cargo trailers come in the form of tire issues. Here we will show you everything you need to know about proper cargo trailer tire safety.
Trailer tires may be worn out even though they still have plenty of tread left. This is because trailer tires have to carry a lot of weight all the time, even when not in use. It is actually better for the tire to be rolling down the road that to be idle. During use, the tire releases lubricants that are beneficial to tire life. Using the trailer tires often also helps prevent flat spots from developing.
The main cause of tire failure is improper inflation. Check the cold tire inflation pressures at least once a week for proper inflation levels. "Cold" means that the tires are at the same temperature as the surrounding air, such as when the vehicle has been parked overnight. Wheel and tire manufacturers recommend adjusting the air pressure to the trailer manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure, in pounds per square inch (PSI) stated on the vehicle's Federal Certification Label or Tire Placard when the trailer is loaded to its gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). If the tires are inflated to less than the recommended inflation level or the GVWR of the trailer is exceeded, the load carrying capacity of the tire could be dramatically affected. If the tires are inflated more than the recommended inflation level, handling characteristics of the tow vehicle/trailer combination could be affected. Refer to the owner's manual or talk to your dealer or vehicle manufacturer if you have any questions regarding proper inflation practices.
Tires can lose air over a period of time. In fact, tires can lose 1 to 3 PS per month. This is because of molecules of air, under pressure, weave their way from the inside of the tire, through the rubber, to the outside. A drop in tire pressure could cause the tire to become overloaded leading to excessive heat build-up. If a trailer tire is underinflated, even for a short period of time, the tire could suffer internal damage.
High speed towing in hot conditions degrades trailer tires significantly. As heat builds up during driving the tires internal structure starts to break down, compromising the strength of the tire. It is recommended to drive at moderate speeds.
Statistics indicate the average life of a trailer tire is about five years under normal use and maintenance conditions. After three years replacing the trailer tires with new ones should be considered, even if the tires have adequate tread depth. Some experts claim that after five years, trailer tires are considered worn out and should be replaced, even if they have had minimal or no use. This is such a general statement that it may not apply in all cases. It is best to have your tires inspected by a tire supplier to determine if your tires need to be replaced.
If you are storing your trailer for an extended period, make sure the tires are fully inflated to the maximum rated pressure and that you store them in a cool, dry place, such as a garage. Use tire covers to protect the trailer tires from the harsh effects of the sun.
How to Determine Proper Load Limits
Determining the load limits of a trailer includes more than understanding the load limits of the tires alone. On all trailers, there is a Federal Certification/VIN label that is located on the forward half of the left (road) side of the unit. This certification/VIN label will indicate the trailers Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). This is the most weight the fully loaded trailer can weight. It will also provide the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). This is the most a particular axle can weight. If there are multiple axles, the GAWR of each axle will be provided.
If your trailer has a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, there is a vehicle placard located in the same location as the certification label described above. This placard provides tire and loading information. In addition, the placard will show a statement regarding maximum cargo capacity. Cargo can be added to the trailer, up to the maximum weight specified on the placard. The combined weight of the cargo is provided as a single number. In any case, remember, the total weight of a fully loaded trailer can not exceed the stated GVWR.
When loading your cargo, be sure it is distributed evenly to prevent overloading front to back and side to side. Heavy items should be placed low and as close to the axle positions as reasonable. Too many items on one side may overload a tire. The best way to know the actual weight of the vehicle is to weigh it at a public scale. Talk to your dealer to discuss the weighting methods needed to capture the various weights related to the trailer. This would include the weight empty or unloaded, weights per axle, wheel, hitch or king-pin, and total weight.
Excessive load and/or under inflation cause tire overloading and, as a result, abnormal tire flexing occurs. This situation can generate an excessive amount of heat within the tire. Excessive heat may lead to tire failure. It is the air pressure that enables a tire to support the load, so proper inflation is critical. The proper air pressure may be found on the Certification/VIN label and/or on the Tire Placard. This value should never exceed the maximum cold inflation pressure stamped on the tire.
Basic Tire Maintenance
Properly maintained tires improve the steering, stopping, traction, and load-carrying capability of your vehicle. Underinflated tires and overloaded vehicles are a major cause of tire failure. Therefore, as mentioned above, to avoid flat tire and other types of tire failure you should maintain proper tire pressure, observe tire and vehicle load limits, avoid road hazards, and regularly inspect your tires.
How to Find Your Vehicle’s Recommended Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire information placards and vehicle certification labels contain information on tires and load limits. These labels indicate the vehicle manufacturer’s information including:
• Recommended tire size
• Recommended tire inflation pressure
• Vehicle capacity weight (VCW – the maximum occupant and cargo weight a vehicle is designed to carry)
• Front and rear gross axle weight ratings (GAWR – the maximum weight the axle systems are designed to carry)
Both placards and certifications labels are permanently attached to the trailer near the left front.
How to Understand Tire Pressure and Load Limits
Tire inflation pressure is the level of air in the tire that provides it with load-carrying capacity and affects the overall performance of the vehicle. The tire inflation pressure is a number that indicates the amount of air pressure – measured in pounds per square inch (psi) – a tire requires to be properly inflated. (You will also find this number on the vehicle information placard expressed in kilopascals (kPal), which is the metric measure used internationally.)
Manufacturers of passenger vehicles and light trucks determine this number based on the vehicle’s design load limit, that is, the greatest amount of weight a vehicle can safely carry and the vehicle’s tire size. The proper tire pressure for your vehicle is referred to as the “recommended cold inflation pressure.” (As you will read below, it is difficult to obtain the recommended tire pressure if your tires are not cold.)
Because tires are designed to be used on more than one type of vehicle, tire manufacturers list the “maximum permissible inflation pressure” on the tire sidewall. This number is the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire under normal driving conditions.
How to Check Tire Pressure
It is important to check your vehicle’s tire pressure at least once a month for the following reasons:
• Most tires may naturally lose air over time
• Tires can lose air suddenly if your drive over a pothole or other object or if you strike the curb when parking.
• With radial tires, it is usually not possible to determine under inflation by visual inspection.
For convenience, purchase a tire pressure gauge to keep in your vehicle. Gauges can be purchased at tire dealerships, auto supply stores, and other retail outlets. The recommended tire inflation pressure that vehicle manufacturers provide reflects the proper psi when a tire is cold. The term cold does not relate to the outside temperature. Rather, a cold tire is one that has not been driven on for a least three hours. When you drive, your tires get warmer, causing the air pressure within them to increase. Therefore, to get an accurate tire pressure reading, you must measure tire pressure when the tires are cold or compensate for the extra pressure in warm tires.
How to Maintain Proper Tire Pressure
• Locate the recommended tire pressure on the vehicle’s tire information placard certification label, or in the owner’s manual.
• Record the tire pressure of all tires.
• If the tire pressure is too high in any of the tires, slowly release air by gently pressing on the tire valve stem with the edge of your tire gauge until you get to the correct pressure.
• If the tire pressure is too low, note the difference between the measured tire pressure and the correct tire pressure. These “missing” pounds of pressure are what you will need to add.
• At a service station, add the missing pounds of air pressure to each tire that is underinflated.
• Check all the tires to make sure they have the same air pressure (except in cases in which the front and rear tires are supposed to have different amounts of pressure.)
If you have been driving your vehicle and think that a tire is underinflated, fill it to the recommended cold inflation pressure indicated on your vehicle’s tire information placard or certification label. While your tire may still be slightly underinflated due to the extra pounds of pressure in the warm tire, it is safer to drive with air pressure that is slightly lower than the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended cold inflation pressure than to drive with a significantly underinflated tire. Since this is a temporary fix, don’t forget to recheck and adjust the tire’s pressure when you can obtain a cold reading.
To maintain tire safety, purchases new tires that are the same size as the vehicle’s original tires or another size recommended by the manufacturer. Look at the tire information placard, the owner’s manual, or the sidewall of the tire you are replacing to find this information. If you have any doubt about the correct size to choose, consult with the tire dealer.
The tire tread provides the gripping action and traction that prevent your vehicle from slipping or sliding, especially when the road is wet or icy. In general, tires are not safe and should be replaced when the tread is worn down to 2/32 of an inch. Tire have built-in treadwear indicators that let you know when it is time to replace you tires. These indicators are raised sections spaced intermittently in the bottom of the tread grooves. When they appear “even” with the outside of the tread, it is time to replace your tires. Another method for checking treat depth is to place a penny in the tread with Lincoln’s head upside down and facing you. If you can see the top of Lincoln’s head, you are ready for new tires.
Tire Balance and Wheel Alignment
To avoid vibration or shaking of the vehicle when a tire rotates, the tire must be properly balanced. This balance is achieved by positioning weights on the wheel to counterbalance heavy spots on the wheel-and-tire assembly. A wheel alignment adjusts the angles of the wheels so that they are positioned correctly relative to the vehicle’s frame. This adjustment maximizes the life of your tires. These adjustments require special equipment and should be performed by a qualified technician.
The proper repair of a punctured tire requires a plug for the hole and a patch for the area inside the tire that surrounds the puncture hold. Punctures through the tread can be repaired if they are not too large, but punctures to the sidewall should not be repaired. Tires must be removed from the rim to be properly inspected before plugged and patched.
Federal law requires tire manufacturers to place standardized information on the sidewall of all tires. This information identifies and describes the fundamental characteristics of the tire and also provides a tire identification number for safety standard certification and in case of a recall